Category Archives: Historical Maps

Other Travelers Part 10 – Tracing the 1918 Flu Epidemic

(Part of an On-going Series – “Other Travelers”)

by Vicki Ruthe Hahn – SGS Stateline Genealogy Sorter

Have you gotten the flu this season?

Not the 24 hour stomach flu (which is bad enough), but the upper respiratory Influenza A or B?  Flu has hit this year especially hard, killing several children. But it is nothing close to the amount of deaths in the Pandemic of 1918.

Perhaps your ancestors were affected by that epidemic – one hundred years ago this year?  Whole families were wiped out.

 

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Let’s get some insight:

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From Standford Children’s Health:

“What are the different types of influenza?

Influenza viruses are divided into three types designated as A, B, and C:

  • Influenza types A and B are responsible for epidemics of respiratory illness that occur almost every winter and often lead to increased rates of hospitalization and death. Public health efforts to control the impact of influenza focus on types A and B. One of the reasons the flu remains a problem is because the viruses actually change their structure regularly. This means that people are exposed to new types of the virus each year.
  • Influenza type C usually causes either a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all. It does not cause epidemics and does not have the severe public health impact that influenza types A and B do….
  1. A person infected with an influenza virus develops antibodies against that virus.
  2. The virus changes.
  3. The “older” antibodies no longer recognizes the “newer” virus when the next flu season comes around.
  4. The person becomes infected again.

The older antibodies can, however, give some protection against getting the flu again. Currently, three different influenza viruses circulate worldwide: two type A viruses and one type B virus. Vaccines given each year to protect against the flu contain the influenza virus strain from each type that is expected to cause the flu that year.

What causes influenza?

An influenza virus is generally passed from person to person through the air. .. with infected person who sneezes or coughs. The virus can also live for a short time on objects …can get the flu virus by touching something that has been handled by someone infected with the virus and then touching his or her own mouth, nose, or eyes.

People are generally the most contagious with the flu 24 hours before they start having symptoms  (emphasis mine) and during the time they have the most symptoms. That’s why it is hard to prevent the spread of the flu, especially among children, because they do not always know they are sick while they are still spreading the disease. The risk of infecting others usually stops around the seventh day of the infection.”

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See the source image

Most entertainments, churches, social clubs, libraries, movie houses, etc. were eventually shut down.  But they tried wearing masks for awhile!

Officials Wearing Gauze Masks

Milkmen(?) braving the Flu to deliver milk to stores, and to people’s homes

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The Flu Epidemic rapidly made many children orphans, dependent on the care of others.

Many families died of neglect or starvation, remaining isolated in their homes, afraid to come out for supplies or medical attention.  Some neighbors were afraid to enter the homes of those who were sick.  So many medical doctors were in the War, ill, or overwhelmed.  anyone with medical training was asked to help, and some communities recruited  volunteers to care for the sick.

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From Standford University, by Molly Billings, June, 1997 modified RDS February, 2005:

“The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed more people than the Great War, known today as World War I (WWI) … It has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. More people died of influenza in a single year than in four-years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague from 1347 to 1351. Known as “Spanish Flu” or “La Grippe” the influenza of 1918-1919 was a global disaster…

In the two years that this scourge ravaged the earth, a fifth of the world’s population was infected. The flu was most deadly for people ages 20 to 40. This pattern of morbidity was unusual for influenza which is usually a killer of the elderly and young children. It infected 28% of all Americans (Tice).

An estimated 675,000 Americans died of influenza during the pandemic, ten times as many as in the world war. Of the U.S. soldiers who died in Europe, half of them fell to the influenza virus and not to the enemy (Deseret News). An estimated 43,000 servicemen mobilized for WWI died of influenza (Crosby). 1918 would go down as unforgettable year of suffering and death and yet of peace…

The effect of the influenza epidemic was so severe that the average life span in the US was depressed by 10 years.   (Emphasis mine.)…

In 1918 children would skip rope to the rhyme (Crawford):

 

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History is reflected in children’s games, and in songs.

(“Ring-around-the Rosie” is NOT from the time of the Black Plaque!)

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The mandatory gauze masks were not always very effective.  There is the story of 4 women who wore masks while playing cards one evening.  By the next morning three of them were dead from Influenza.

 

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In an effort to boost the War effort, President Woodrow Wilson (and others) initially tried to ignore the pandemic, and suppress news about it.  How depressing that so many of those who survived the war, ended up dying of influenza.  Whole shiploads of military men were affected, some never making it to serve in the War.

The cause of most of the deaths in this pandemic was the secondary pneumonia.  There were no antibiotics.  Influenza frequently has secondary infections – strep throat, ear infections, Pink Eye, etc.  But this time it was more than that. (see explanation below.)

Be alert if you see several people in your ancestor’s family die suddenly, and within a few days of each other, especially if between September 1918 and about June 1919.  A death certificate may not mention flu/influenza, but pneumonia, etc. as cause of death.  Or there might not have been a police officer/medical person/undertaker/county recorder available to make any registration. (see explanation below.)  Some members of the family may have been buried in a mass grave with no records.

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From History.com

The first wave of the 1918 pandemic occurred in the spring and was generally mild. The sick …experienced … typical flu symptoms….

However, a second, highly contagious wave of influenza appeared with a vengeance in the fall of that same year. Victims died within hours or days of developing symptoms, their skin turning blue and their lungs filling with fluid that caused them to suffocate….

Despite the fact that the 1918 flu wasn’t isolated to one place, it became known around the world as the Spanish flu, as Spain was hit hard by the disease and was not subject to the wartime news blackouts that affected other European countries. (Even Spain’s king, Alfonso XIII, reportedly contracted the flu.)

One unusual aspect of the 1918 flu was that it struck down many previously healthy, young people—a group normally resistant to this type of infectious illness—including a number of World War I servicemen…. Forty percent of the U.S. Navy was hit with the flu, while 36 percent of the Army became ill, and troops moving around the world in crowded ships and trains helped to spread the killer virus.

Although the death toll attributed to the Spanish flu is often estimated at 20 million to 50 million victims worldwide, other estimates run as high as 100 million victims. The exact numbers are impossible to know due to a lack of medical record-keeping in many places.

…Even President Woodrow Wilson reportedly contracted the flu in early 1919 while negotiating the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I.

When the 1918 flu hit, doctors and scientists were unsure what caused it or how to treat it. Unlike today, there were no effective vaccines or antivirals, drugs that treat the flu. (The first licensed flu vaccine appeared in America in the 1940s….)

Complicating matters was the fact that World War I had left parts of America with a shortage of physicians and other health workers. And of the available medical personnel in the U.S., many came down with the flu themselves.

Additionally, hospitals in some areas were so overloaded with flu patients that schools, private homes and other buildings had to be converted into makeshift hospitals, some of which were staffed by medical students.

Officials in some communities imposed quarantines, ordered citizens to wear masks and shut down public places, including schools, churches and theaters. People were advised to avoid shaking hands and to stay indoors, libraries put a halt on lending books and regulations were passed banning spitting… the Sanitary Code.”

The flu took a heavy human toll, wiping out entire families and leaving countless widows and orphans in its wake. Funeral parlors were overwhelmed and bodies piled up. Many people had to dig graves for their own family members.

The flu was also detrimental to the economy. In the United States, businesses were forced to shut down because so many employees were sick. Basic services such as mail delivery and garbage collection were hindered due to flu-stricken workers.

In some places there weren’t enough farm workers to harvest crops. Even state and local health departments closed for business, hampering efforts to chronicle the spread of the 1918 flu and provide the public with answers about it.

By the summer of 1919, the flu pandemic came to an end, as those that were infected either died or developed immunity.

Almost 90 years later, in 2008, researchers announced they’d discovered what made the 1918 flu so deadly: A group of three genes enabled the virus to weaken a victim’s bronchial tubes and lungs and clear the way for bacterial pneumonia.

Since 1918, there have been several other influenza pandemics, although none as deadly.”

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The 1918 Spanish Flu Pandemic was world wide:

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The ultimate “other Travelers” in this story are the viruses and bacteria that exploded throughout the world for those 15 months 1918 – 1919.

PBS has a very good “American Experience” documentary of the topic

Aired January 2, 2018

Influenza 1918

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/influenza/

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The American military in World War I and the influenza pandemic were closely connected. Influenza spread in The crowded conditions of military camps in the United States and in the trenches of the Western Front in Europe. The virus traveled with military personnel from camp to camp and across the Atlantic military transit ships.  September – November 1918, influenza and pneumonia sickened many in the military at the height of the American military involvement in the war.  This affected the war.

US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Public Health Rep. 2010; 125(Suppl 3): 82–91.

INFLUENZA IN THE CAMPS

(read the entire article by clicking the links above.)

“…the virus traveled west and south, arriving at Camp Grant, Illinois, on Saturday, September 21, 1918, with 70 hospital admissions. “So sudden and appalling was the visitation that it required the greatest energy and cooperation of every officer, every man, and every nurse to meet the emergency,” wrote one observer.4 (p. 749) Hospital admissions rose to 194, then 370, then 492, to a high of 788 admissions on September 29. Hospital officials summoned all officers on leave, converted barracks to hospital wards, and by “extreme effort” expanded the hospital capacity from “10 occupied beds to a capacity of 4,102 beds in six days.”4 (p.751)

Influenza still overwhelmed every department. The hospital laboratory resorted to local civilian facilities to perform specimen tests. Camp ophthalmologists saw patients with conjunctivitis, an influenza complication, and ear, nose, and throat specialists saw those with other dangerous secondary infections. As individuals became seriously ill, camp officials sent out “danger” or “death” telegrams to families and loved ones, but soon they received so many return calls, telegrams, and visitors, they had to set up a separate hospital tent as an information bureau. Medical personnel were not immune. Eleven of the 81 medical officers fell ill, and three civilian and three Army nurses died. The epidemic even caused the Medical Department to drop its prohibition on black nurses so that Camp Grant called African American nurses to care for patients. The women had to wait, however, until separate, segregated accommodations could be constructed.”

 

National Archives: World War I Centennial

As the largest repository of American World War I records, the National Archives invites you to browse the wealth of records and information documenting the U.S. experience in this conflict, including photographs, documents, audiovisual recordings, educational resources, articles, blog posts, lectures, and events.

Veteran’s Service Records:

https://www.archives.gov/veterans

 

 

 

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FamilySearch.org “Homework” for Stateline Genealogy Club Program February 9, 2018

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Finding Elusive Records on FamilySearch

Relatives Around Me

Finding the (ED) Enumeration District numbers on a Census – More Information

Finding the (ED) Enumeration District numbers on a Census – More Information

11-28-2017 Vicki’s Note –  Here is more information from this Family Tree magazine article.

I did find some of my Ancestor’s ED numbers on these sites.  They lived in a rural area, so no house address was found.  The maps are not complete, but if you find one, it may help you understand the geographical relationship of ED areas to each other/neighborhoods.:

Research Roadmap: Enumeration District Maps

https://www.familytreemagazine.com/premium/research-roadmap-ed-maps/

“What are enumeration districts? Since 1880, the US Census Bureau has divided states into numbered enumeration districts (EDs) to organize enumerators’ efforts. Each ED was sized such that one census-taker (enumerator) could count the population there in a day. You can find ED numbers for your ancestor’s hometown using the Unified Census ED Finder tool.”

“Most surviving ED maps are at the National Archives and Records Administration. On Family­Search.org, you can browse a collection of these maps from the censuses taken between 1910 and 1940, organized by state and county.”

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Further information can be found on my May 26, 2017 BLOG posting – click below:

How do I find out what the dwelling number was on a street by using the (ED) Enumeration District numbers on a Census?

Two Additional Genealogy Programs by Vicki Ruthe Hahn – Sept. 25 and Oct. 23, 2017 at NSLD, IL.

Two Additional Genealogy Programs by Vicki Ruthe Hahn –

Sept. 25 and Oct. 23, 2017 at NSLD, North Suburban Library District, Illinois:

These are both free 1 hour classes available to all.

NSLD/Loves Park

6340 N. Second St.

Loves Park, IL 61111

 

NSLD/Roscoe

5562 Clayton Circle

Roscoe, IL 61073

 

www.northsuburbanlibrarydistrict.org

Facebook.com/NorthSuburbanLibrary

 

“Family History for Beginners, and Detective Techniques for Experienced Genealogists”

Monday, September 25 from 2-3pm at NSLD Roscoe, Illinois

 

Effectively find the most that you can about your family history with hands-on exercises, and examples.  Be successful using basic genealogy research methods. Learn how to: search archives and on-line, record evidence, organize your genealogy, use timelines and “FAN” clubs, analyze records, and find missing clues based on what you know, etc.

 

 

Research Your Overseas Ancestors Without Going ‘Across the Pond’”

Monday, October 23 from 2-3 at NSLD Loves Park, Illinois

 

Learn how to find your immigrant ancestors’ information in U.S. records, in over-seas on-line genealogy databases, and in other, mostly-free, resources. How histories and maps help track their immigrations. What to do about language barriers. 

 

statelinegenealogyclub @ Beloit Public Library - Vicki RUTHE HAHN

Vicki Ruthe Hahn  – Public Services Librarian, Beloit Public Library, WI – BA and MLIS University of Illinois.  Blog creator of “StatelineGenealogyClub.Wordpress.com” 2014 ; founder of Stateline Genealogy Club @ Beloit Public Library 2012.  “Stateline Genealogy Sorter” SGS, with a background in Anthropology, History, clothing history, and teaching, she sorts out mysteries, rediscovers histories, weaves stories, and helps people with their family genealogy and local history,  specializing from Central Illinois to Central Wisconsin. 

 

Sanborn and Animap

Vicki’s note – here is information and links to two map sources – Library of Congress Sanborn maps on-line; and a software called Animap by The Gold bug:  

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Library of Congress Sanborn maps on-line:

https://www.loc.gov/collections/sanborn-maps/

About this Collection

The Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps Online Checklist provides a searchable database of the fire insurance maps published by the Sanborn Map Company housed in the collections of the Geography and Map Division. The online checklist is based upon the Library’s 1981 publication Fire Insurance Maps in the Library of Congress and will be continually updated to reflect new acquisitions.

Fire Insurance Maps
in the Library of
Congress. 1981

The online checklist also contains links to existing digital images from our collection and will be updated as new images are added. If you have any questions, comments, or are interested in obtaining reproductions from the collection, please Ask A Librarian.

The Sanborn maps are arranged by state, then city and release data. Currently there are over 25,000 sheets from over 3000 city sets online in the following states: AK, AL, AZ, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, GA, ID, IL, IN, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MO, MS, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NV, OH, OK, PA, SD, TX, VA, VT, WY and Canada, Mexico, Cuba sugar warehouses, and U.S. whiskey warehouses.

AND

http://goldbug.com/animap/ 

Finding an old town that has long-since disappeared from the map. Find a known location that is not now in the same county that it was 100 or 200 years ago.
goldbug.com

 

SITEFINDER DATABASES INCLUDED

SiteFinder contains listings for more than one million places in the United States including more than 120,000 variant names. Each listing gives the name of the place, the county where it is (or was) located, and includes latitude-longitude coordinates for 95% of them. With a few mouse clicks, you can pluck items from SiteFinder and plot them on the maps in AniMap … complete with labels.

Included in the listings are: Cities & towns, Locales (includes railroad stations, trading posts, farms & ranches, plantations, ruins, ghost towns …and more). Other categories which you can search for separately or in combination include courthouses, cemeteries, churches, schools, islands, townships and more.

Much of the information in SiteFinder has been extracted from the US Geological Survey files and records of the US Post Office. More than 50,000 of the locations are places that are no longer in existence or those that have had name changes. While it does not list every place that ever existed, we believe you will find it to be the best source available.

 

 

Confusing Locations Solved

Confusing Locations Solved

by Vicki Ruthe Hahn

July 3, 2017

I hope you are having as much fun doing genealogy this July 4th Weekend as I am.

This is something I discovered lately that sure helped me solve some confusing and conflicting references to locations.  There are several locations in my Illinois families, (and my Pennsylvania families) that I know are the same places.  Yet they are referred to by several different names in different citations.  It was not even the usual – “location names change with time.”

Those who live on farms often refer to themselves as living “in” the nearest town.  For instance, my Illinois families consistently said they lived in Table Grove, Illinois even though it was 3 miles from their farms. (And then some moved to the town!)

To confuse matters more, I figured out that many locations have four levels of names.  Not just the township or city, county, and state, but another local level of a unique name for a specific area in a township. People from there refer interchangeably to only one, or the other, of the two lowest location levels.

Neither Pennington Point, New Salem Township, McDonough, Illinois nor Foster Point, Eldorado Township, McDonough, Illinois were towns.  They were just names given to communities of farms that had a church and a one-room schoolhouse in them.

My family’s Illinois records would irregularly refer to either Pennington Point or New Salem; or to Foster Point or Eldorado.   I am finding the same variable references to locations for my Pennsylvania families.

Looking at a good local map helps to see these tiny niche names.

Rural Cemetery Studies

Rural Cemetery Studies

7-3-2017

Vicki’s note – a quote I read from another on-line source that I found. I am including the entire addendum from the on-line book.  However, I could not find out who did the 2012 revision of this priceless 1970s publication.  My hat’s off to any and all (Find-a-grave, Boy Scout, etc.) volunteer photographers,  restorers, and researchers who find and preserve genealogical information for the rest of us.

I also love his quote about those ancestors, “…who dared to settle the prairie lands of western Illinois and raise their families.”

Read this just to know how lucky we are to have the Internet and computers to aid us in our research.

Hint – google on-line.  You may just find the very exact resource you need for the tiny area that you are researching.:

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RURAL CEMETERIES OF McDONOUGH COUNTY, ILLINOIS

VOLUME VII
NEW SALEM -ELDORADO
BY DUANE LESTER
GOOD HOPE, ILLINOIS
PRINTED BY
SCHUYLER –BROWN HISTORICAL AND GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY
AND
THE SCHUYLER JAIL MUSEUM

http://genmarker.com/McDonough/RuralCemVols/Vol07Rev.pdf :

” a monument is erected not because a person died, but because a person lived”

“ADDENDUM
Mr. Lester’s Magnum Opus is nothing short of monumental. It is not easy to gain access to many of these historic family burial sites. By the time of Mr. Lester’s survey (1970’s) numerous plots were long left abandoned, overgrown with trees and weeds and monuments under attack by weather, livestock, vandals, and property owners who did not care about the burial sites of McDonough County’s brave pioneers.
Thankfully, we now (2012) have laws to protect our county’s historical legacy and these final resting gardens.
I am in awe of Mr. Lester for his transcriptions of hard – to – read tombstones and his laborious typing of his 18 Volumes of the Rural Cemeteries of McDonough County. He did not have access to a computer. In addition to transcribing information from tombstones, he had to painstakingly access county records (e.g. 1840 county tax list), federal census records, and local newspapers requiring a great deal of time and effort.
As a genealogist in 2012, I have access to the internet with fast access to US Census
records, Family Search (records kept by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter – Day Saints) and numerous other legal documents, books, and family journals.
Mr. Lester used an old-fashioned key – strike, ribbon tape typewriter where mistakes
were hard to correct and appear as overstrikes. There are very few attesting to his skill as a typist.
What an US Census record will not contain are the names and dates of infants who died between census surveys. Mr. Lester’s tombstone records give names and dates of children, whose lives were brief, but would otherwise be lost to history without his efforts. Frequently, he provides names of brothers and sisters, fathers and mothers that allows for completion of family group sheets.
Another work of love for those who dared to settle the prairie lands of western Illinois and raise their families is being performed by Dr. A. Gil Belles. He has been able to install signs for each of these rural cemeteries and provide GPS (Global Positioning System) information making it easier for anyone wishing to visit a rural cemetery to help them actually find it.
Gil also works closely with Boy Scouts and other civic groups to help cleanup, clear brush and dead trees, locate buried tombstones, and restore stones. My revision of Mr. Lester’s document will provide information on all cemetery restoration projects.
Any changes made to Mr. Lester’s original work was done in blue color font. His maps were scanned and copied into the text and remain like his original work and are not subject to editing.
His text was transcribed using MS Word, enabling me to control font size and color. Retyping text also leaves room for typo errors. Mr. Lester’s rare typo errors are corrected but not displayed in blue. This MS Word document allows on -the – fly editing of any “Notes, Corrections, Additions, and Changes” found at the end of every cemetery. This was Mr. Lester’s intent to produce a working document and improve accuracy about the information on those buried.
I have retyped state abbreviations as they are now used (e.g. IL, instead of Ill.). On 1840 county tax lists I omitted cents (e.g. $140, instead of $140.00). The current MS Word font uses less space, thus, placing more text per line. This shrinks his documents and reduces pages. This , then, changes page numbering in each Table of Contents.
Cemetery locations are also found on the internet. See: McDonough County Illinois Cemeteries http://graveyards.com/graveyards/IL/McDonough

“Scots-Irish” – What’s in a Name?

“Scots-Irish” – What’s in a Name?

Vicki’s note – now I know what the name “Scots-Irish”  means.  I will have to see if my ancestors are truly Scots who emigrated  to Ulster, Ireland vs the miscellaneous Scottish and Irish folks that I know about.

This Class from Family Tree University would be valuable to learn those fine points.  Course Runs: Jun 26th 2017 – Jul 21st 2017.

Instructor – Amanda Epperson

Amanda Epperson completed her Ph.D. in Scottish History at the University of Glasgow. In addition to teaching and freelance writing, she works as an Editor and Researcher at Genealogists.com.

 

What’s in a Name?
scots_irish

The term “Scots-Irish” isn’t anyone who happens to have both Irish and Scottish descendants. It refers to the Scottish people who moved into Ireland in the 17th Century in and around Ulster. Because there were two migrations – first from Scotland to Ireland, then from Ireland to the Americas, those tracing their ancestors back have unique challenges to contend with.

Research Your Scots-Irish Family History

Research Your Scots-Irish Family History

Trace Your Scots-Irish Ancestry Back to Ulster


The term “Scots-Irish” refers to the descendants of Scottish people who emigrated to Ulster in the seventeenth century to take advantage of economic opportunities. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, an estimated one-third of Ulster’s population was Scottish.

In this four week course, you will gain a basic understanding of the settlement of Ulster in the seventeenth century and the migration of the Ulster-Scots people to America in the seventeenth century. Descriptions of records and lists of websites will help you find many of the documents required to trace your Scots-Irish ancestors back to Ireland. You will also gain an appreciation for the challenges of Irish research. Review exercises and discussion prompts will encourage you to start your research and engage with your classmates.

What You’ll Learn

  • History of the settlement of Ulster and of Scots-Irish migration
  • How to identify Scots-Irish ancestors
  • Understand the limitations of Irish research
  • How to find Irish records
  • Techniques for scaling brick walls


Course Outline

Lesson 1: Ulster Scots: Gaining a Foundation

  1. Introduction
  2. Where is Ulster?
    Province of Ulster
    Northern Ireland
  3. Who are the Ulster Scots?
  4. Settlement of Ulster
  5. Migration to and from Ulster
  6. Cultural Differences in Ulster
  7. Review Exercises

Scots-Irish Genealogy Search Strategies

Lesson 2: Begin Your Research

  1. Why is Scots-Irish different than Irish or Scottish genealogy research?
  2. Do I have Scots-Irish Ancestors?
    6 different clues to Scots-Irish Heritage
  3. Working Backwards to Prove Your Scots-Irish Ancestry
    Getting Ready for Ulster Records
  4. Where to Find the Data You Need
    A study of 8 different sources
  5. Review Exercises

Lesson 3: Digging Deeper – Researching in Ulster

  1. Records in two Countries
    Northern Ireland
    Republic of Ireland
  2. Record Destruction and Irish Genealogy
    This section will explore both the 1922 fire and various difficulties of finding records, plus the resources that are available to research, including online collections.
  3. How Irish Records are Divided
    Unlike US records which can be at the state or county level, exploring Ulster’s records involves knowing the five different levels of records.
  4. Records for Ulster / Northern Ireland
    Familiarize yourself with 9 different types of records for Ulster and Northern Ireland.
  5. Where to Find the Records
  6. Review Exercises

Lesson 4: Challenges to Your Research

  1. Brick Walls and Dead Ends
  2. Cluster Genealogy
    What is it?
    Why is it necessary for Ulster genealogy?
  3. Exhausting Your Options
    Your records research doesn’t stop with online records – even if you can’t make a trip overseas, these 6 research strategies will help you find everything you can.
  4. Research in Scotland
    Explore the Scots in Scots-Irish.
  5. No Ulster or Scottish Connections? Read relevant histories.
  6. Re-evaluation and Analysis
    No research is complete without these 3 steps.
  7. Review Exercises

Note: this course is best for advanced beginners and intermediate-level family historians. It may require a longer time commitment than similar courses to complete the lessons and exercises.

Our courses are designed to be easily accessible! Once you’ve registered for the course, you’ll be able to log in on the start date of the session (midnight on Monday, US Mountain time) to see all the lessons. Each lesson is available within your browser and can be downloaded for future reference or offline access.

This is a four-week course made up primarily of written lessons, quizzes, and reading assignments. You can work at your own pace, but you should expect to devote at least a few hours to each lesson. While designed to be done one per week, some people like to work through all of the lessons at once, two at a time, or in bursts. There are no audio or visual elements within the primary lesson materials; however, some additional reading assignments may contain links to YouTube or other videos.

Some courses may have assignments you can also do with the instructor providing feedback. Others have additional reading and may be up to the individual instructor.

Additionally, there is a discussion board where you can interact with your instructor and fellow students. We encourage discussion, asking questions, and trying out what you’ve learned and sharing your results in the boards that go along with the lessons.

The format for this course is as follows:

  1. Orientation/Syllabus/Contact Us – How to navigate through the course structure, the discussion boards, etc.
  2. Lesson 1: Lesson, Reading/Assignment, Quizzes
  3. Lesson 2: Lesson, Reading/Assignment, Quizzes
  4. Lesson 3: Lesson, Reading/Assignment, Quizzes
  5. Lesson 4: Lesson, Reading/Assignment, Quizzes
  6. Library and Further Steps

The quizzes are automatically graded as you go through and there is a drop down menu where you can navigate throughout the course, going back to other lessons.


New Discovery – Rockford (Illinois) Reminisce.com

New Discovery – Rockford (Illinois) Reminisce.com

June, 23, 2017

Vicki’s note – I discovered this fabulous website on-line today.  I am copying just enough of it to let you know that it is worth looking at, even if you are not interested in the history of Rockford, Illinois.  I lived most of my life in/near Rockford, and I learned a lot that I was surprised that I had not heard of before. 

This site is huge, and has so much history and fascinating photographs.  I think that you will enjoy it just for learning more about United States/Midwest history in general.  I do not know who the “I” is who created this site, but I am very impressed at all of the work involved. 

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The Original Rockford Nostalgic Website

Main Lobby

 

Research can become addictive. It can also be frustrating. You may exhaust every source possible and still not have the answers to your questions. But no matter how many questions remain unanswered, you will have unearthed some interesting information, learned a little more about your community and become familiar with some important history of Rockford past. I have done much research over the years on Rockford and surrounding communities, and continue to do so. I have collected Rockford related items since I was a child.  I would like to share some of that with you – welcome to rockfordreminisce.com

 

Find out what was made in Rockford over the years and the people of who made it all possible. Browse through the different galleries and find information on industry, entertainment, retail, dining, lodging, learn the origin of street names, view Rockford as it appeared in 1880 in our map section and so much more. I hope that many happy memories of Rockford will be remembered by you as you browse through the website and that it will enlighten you as well as educate you. What I have available on the site at present is just a small sampling of what is yet to appear. This website is still a work in progress and I will be adding more items in the weeks and months ahead.

 

All Website Content Copyrighted By RockfordReminisce.com  © 2008-2017

Free download of Google Earth Pro

Vicki’s note – April 6, 2017 article from Family Tree Legacy Genealogy insider e-newsletter, Diane Haddad:

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Free download of Google Earth Pro

Download Google Earth Pro for Free

Geography and genealogy go hand in hand: researching places tells you about the ancestors who lived there. This makes Google Earth software incredible handy, and now you can download Google Earth Pro for free. Watch Google Earth guru Lisa Louise Cooke explain what’s so great about this program–and learn about our Google Earth for Genealogists online course starting April 10. Read More…