Category Archives: Vicki RUTHE HAHN – Stateline Genealogist

Getting to Know William Graydon’s Family, and Me – Here’s the Punchline!

By Vicki Ruthe Hahn

8-11-2017″

Duhhhh! I forgot to tell you the punchline this morning.

Great questions on my Stateline Genealogy Club @ Beloit Public Library program today.

“Getting to Know William Graydon’s Family, and Me – a Study Showing Genealogy Research Methods and Regional Connections”.

The biggest Stateline/regional connections are these:

Major Jesse Meacham’s extended family (I think) is connected to the 1833 founding of the community West of Chicago – Meacham Grove, Illinois

(I believe that this is the “Chicago” that Major Jesse Meacham, and later, Elizabeth Lulu Booth visited before going to Troy WI.)

While Jesse Meacham went on to found Troy, Wisconsin (where William R Graydon’s family later moved),

Caleb Blodgett bought a farm/acreage in Meacham Grove, Illinois.

After a short while, Caleb Blodgett sold his Illinois land, and moved to Wisconsin.

The French trapper Joseph Thiebault (Tebo) was the first white man who came to the Beloit Wisconsin area in 1820.  He was married to two American Indian wives at the same time.

Stephen Mack was the first white settler (mid 1830s) in the Rockton Illinois area, and was married to Hononegah, a Native American woman from one of the surrounding tribes.  He founded Macktown, Illinois.

Tebo and Stephen Mack knew, and traded with each other.

Caleb Blodgett bought “three looks” of land in 1836 from Tebo, and founded what became Beloit, Wisconsin.

Caleb Blodgett knew, and traded with, Stephen Mack of Macktown Illinois (near Rockton).

 

And now you know (some of ) the rest of the story!

 

MCGS McHenry County Genealogical Conference 2017

MCGS McHenry County Genealogical Conference 2017

Vicki Ruthe Hahn, SGS Stateline Genealogy Sorter

July 10, 2017

An email I received after attending this one-day Conference last Saturday, July 8.

 MCGS
Dear Vicki,

Thank you for spending the day with us at McHenry County College!  We hope the conference was helpful to your research and that you had a great time connecting with other genealogists.

Hope to see you next year!

 Ξ

And my answer is – YES!  This is the third time that I went to this Conference.  It is only about an hour away from Beloit, and well worth your time.  They have fabulous, knowledgeable speakers, and the cost is $70, including lunch.

The McHenry County Illinois Genealogical Society’s 2017 Summer Conference was held on Saturday, July 8, 2017 at McHenry County College, 8900 Rt. 14, Crystal Lake, Illinois.

This year’s annual conference featured:

  • Mary M. Tedesco, host/genealogist on the PBS TV series Genealogy Roadshow, (seasons 2 &3).    Contact her through the ORIGINS ITALY website at www.originsitaly.com.                                                                                                        She gave lots of techniques for good, basic genealogy, and how to find the names and locations of origin for your ancestors from overseas.  I attended a second session that Mary gave on how to find your Italian ancestors.   Mary is every bit as knowledgeable and friendly as she appears on television.  I enjoyed getting to know her a bit.

Vicki Hahn and Mary Tedesco:2017, July 8 Mary Tedesco & Vicki Hahn WSCG Conference, McHenry County College, IL

  • Thomas MacEntee, creator of GeneaBloggers.com.                                                      I got to talk with Thomas, but had too many other sessions that I needed to hear.   I was not able to go to one given by him this year like I have other years.

 

  • Paul Milner, author, & specialist in British Isles & U.S. research.                                      He gave a session on how to find your Irish ancestors.

 

  • Michael Lacopo DVM, nationally known lecturer – adoption, emigration & immigration, and many ethnic groups.                                                                            He gave a session on how to find your German ancestors.

 

  • A variety of vendors with publications and genealogy supplies.

 

Each of the speakers gave us a one week course in one hour!   Soon, I will be condensing all of that information, (plus more that I have learned elsewhere), into one session on “Finding your Overseas Ancestors”.  Be looking for a program on “jumping the pond” in our Stateline Genealogy Club programs next year.

These topics came at a perfect time, as I am about ready to search outside of the United States.  I have learned from these experts that it is not an easy task, but they prepared me well (enough) to begin the search.

Several of them would lend professional assistance to you if you decide to hire an expert, or if you need a knowledgeable guide to help you in Europe.

Join me next year.

MCIGS 2018 SUMMER CONFERENCE

Saturday, July 7, 2018 SAVE THE DATE!

McHenry County Illinois Genealogical Society P.O. Box 184, Crystal Lake, Illinois 60014 www.mcigs.org email:mcigs@mcigs.org Phone:815/687-0436

Stateline Travelers Part 9 -A “Shack Beautiful” Cinderella Story and Me; The Very Modest Cottage

Stateline Travelers Part 9 –

A “Shack Beautiful” Cinderella Story and Me;

The Very Modest Cottage

July 9, 2017

by Vicki Ruthe Hahn, SGS Stateline Genealogy Sorter

Part of an On-going Series – Stateline Travelers

This Posting of the Stateline Travelers is the story that caused me to start this series about “people” moving across state lines, (and my series “Other Travelers”), in the first place.  Stateline Travelers Part 9 A “Shack Beautiful” Cinderella Story and Me; The Very Modest Cottage was only going to be one Post, but I realized it was linked to so much more.  The Posts in the Other Travelers Series are stories that are connected to me, but are other than stateline experiences.

If you remember, I have connections from south central Wisconsin (Walworth and Rock Counties) all the way down to central western Illinois (Winnebago, McHenry, and McDonough Counties).  The other Posts in the series have gotten us to the point where I can finally segue way into my connections to this little shack.  In this case, the “person” who moved across state lines is a building.  This particular building has a unique connection to me, and other people that I know.

Hint- studying a building’s history can tell you a lot about the people who are associated with the building. Did you know that you can do genealogy of a building, house, or place?

Patrons come to the Beloit Public Library all of the time to look up the history of their houses.  Sometimes it is to see who is haunting it!  Sometimes it is just to know more about the people who had resided in it before them, and to see how old it is.  We have some nice big maps and City Directories of Beloit throughout history.

Illinois Map of How to Get to Beardstown_thumb

 The Very Modest Cottage and Me

The cottage started its travels in Beardstown Illinois, which is along the Illinois River and about 38 miles north of my childhood Table Grove area farm home.  I grew up hearing “Beardstown”  in the local news and weather.  I will have to ask my Mom what events we attended there in my childhood.  I am remembering fish fry picnics there.  Even though we moved when I was 7, we visited my paternal grandmother many times per year in Table Grove.

In Sugar Creek Township, north of Elkhorn, there is a very modest cottage near where I live now .  The shack was moved from Beardstown (central) Illinois north across the stateline 200 miles to its new home and sixth life.

cottage

Tereasa had come across the shack while visiting her grandmother in Beardstown.  When Tereasa bought the shack, she did an extensive search for its history with countless interviews of locals, and the genealogy search of library and courthouse records to get accurate history.  She discovered 6 previous lives of her shack, and several previous moves!

“A Very Modest Cottage”, by Tereasa Surratt, is a beautiful book full of tales and photographs about the history, moving, remodeling, decorating, and transformation of a shack into a cozy, welcoming guest cottage in a new location.  It is inspiration for the methods, and a final keepsake, of how you can trace the history of your own house.  Her book tells the stories of two locations.

cottage book back

You can get a better feel for whom your ancestors were by discovering the places that they lived in and how local, national, and world events and history affected their life decisions and experiences.

I did that very thing, by reading the Morgan County, Ohio history “mug” book on our WHS Wisconsin Historical Society trip, to find out more about my elusive ancestor Thomas Campbell and his wife Mary Jane Adams.

On our WHS fieldtrip 2 years ago, I thought I had traced them back to Ireland.  The WHS librarian advised me to try a different family in the interest of time, as those names in Ireland would be too numerous to search effectively until I learned more.  He also knew that the Pennsylvania County that I was looking for had not been created yet.

Hint – ask the staff as you research at societies and libraries.

Of course the librarian was right. I have since found that it was a few more generations back to when that family had “crossed the pond” from Scotland to America.  I traced my relatives from Pennsylvania to Ohio where Thomas Campbell had a connection to the Underground Railroad.  (Read “Other Travelers Part 9 – The Underground Railroad and Me; My Ancestor Thomas Campbell was an Abolitionist!” posted on June 29, 2017).  Search “travelers“ to find the other Postings in my two series “Stateline Travelers”, and ”Other Travelers”.

As a librarian, reader, writer, photographer, and creative person, I just appreciate a beautiful book and Tereasa’s creativity and work.

cottage book front

The Beloit Public Library staff was so delighted with my copy of the book, that they purchased two copies – one for the Genealogy collection, and one to check out. It is a how to book on researching the genealogy of a building.

The modest 91/2″ X 7 1/2″ book of 175 pages reflects the 12ft x 12 ft 1920s shack, yet it is such a little gem of a book that you may want a copy for yourself.  $25 at:

www.averymodestcottage.com

or   www.sterlingpublishing.com

Yes, I do know Tereasa because she lives in the area near me – in the summer and weekends.  She and her husband David Hernandez are also stateline travelers – from their jobs at an Ad Agency in Chicago to their private “country resort”, Camp Wandawega.

cottage fabric

The Modest Cabin is one of their many resort residences that one can rent for a vacation get-away –   “private, vintage pair of cabins overlooks the lake and wetlands, nestled within the legendary Wandawega Lake Resort, aka Camp Wandawega.    Lake Wandawega  http://www.wandawega.com/

I am getting to know this whole area of Walworth County.  There are a lot of great historic stories that I will be posting here.  And it started with this gem.

 

Confusing Locations Solved

Confusing Locations Solved

by Vicki Ruthe Hahn

July 3, 2017

I hope you are having as much fun doing genealogy this July 4th Weekend as I am.

This is something I discovered lately that sure helped me solve some confusing and conflicting references to locations.  There are several locations in my Illinois families, (and my Pennsylvania families) that I know are the same places.  Yet they are referred to by several different names in different citations.  It was not even the usual – “location names change with time.”

Those who live on farms often refer to themselves as living “in” the nearest town.  For instance, my Illinois families consistently said they lived in Table Grove, Illinois even though it was 3 miles from their farms. (And then some moved to the town!)

To confuse matters more, I figured out that many locations have four levels of names.  Not just the township or city, county, and state, but another local level of a unique name for a specific area in a township. People from there refer interchangeably to only one, or the other, of the two lowest location levels.

Neither Pennington Point, New Salem Township, McDonough, Illinois nor Foster Point, Eldorado Township, McDonough, Illinois were towns.  They were just names given to communities of farms that had a church and a one-room schoolhouse in them.

My family’s Illinois records would irregularly refer to either Pennington Point or New Salem; or to Foster Point or Eldorado.   I am finding the same variable references to locations for my Pennsylvania families.

Looking at a good local map helps to see these tiny niche names.

Other Travelers Part 9 – The Underground Railroad and Me; My Ancestor Thomas Campbell was an Abolitionist!

Other Travelers Part 9 –

The Underground Railroad and Me;

My Ancestor Thomas Campbell was an Abolitionist!

(Part of an On-going Series – “Other Travelers”)

by Vicki Ruthe Hahn – SGS Stateline Genealogy Sorter

June 29, 2017

Thomas Campbell

 

My paternal Grandmother Muriel Ruthe’s maternal Great Great Grandfather Thomas Campbell (1786 Pennsylvania – 1858 Morgan County, Ohio) was an abolitionist, i.e. “one who before the Civil War had agitated for the immediate, unconditional, and total abolition of slavery in the United States.”  The July  1787 “Ordinance of Freedom” for the Ohio Territory, Article 6 stated that there would be no slavery, but that slavery owners could claim their runaway slaves in Ohio.

From about 1820, Morgan County was part of the Underground Railroad.  In 1842, 16 slaves were escaping from Wood County, Virginia.  They stopped at a Station near James Coles on the river near McConnelsville.  They also hid in Jehu Coulson’s tobacco house, Issac Clendenin’s house, Joshua Wood’s house and, Esquire Lint’s office.  Their owners, Mr. Henderson, and O’Neil Summer of Virginia, offered a $3,000 reward for their capture.  They requested a search warrant.

Several men from the area stalled the owners by talking, and about 30 rode horses in opposite directions to confuse the pursuers, while the slaves escaped.  The owners, and their men, posted guards west of Deacon Wright’s, and at Campbell’s Mill to keep watch at the junction of two main roads. (Thomas Campbell and Henry Moore had an early mill on Island Run.)

The slaves were led on a branch route a short distance down from Island Run, then up to the head of Brush Creek, and then to thick brushwood near the mouth of the Moxahala River.  There they were met by an Underground Railroad Train Conductor from Putnam, and got away.

From 1842 – 1861 Morgan County assisted 285 “Negros” to gain freedom!   (I think Thomas Campbell, even though old and slower then at age 56, either rode with the other men to confuse the pursuers; convinced the owners to set a guard near his Mill because he knew a shortcut behind it for the slaves; or maybe led the slaves partway on the shortcut to continue to their freedom.   I am very proud of him.)  Who knew Ohio was such a hotbed of abolitionists?

This information is from Morgan County, Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Some of  It’s Pioneers and Prominent Men”, by Charles Robertson, M.D., revised and extended by the publishers, Chicago, L. H. Watkins and Co, 1886.  It took reading most of the book to glean the 2 historical references to my ancestor Thomas Campbell.  He was not prominent enough to pay for a separate biography.   I found the book at the Wisconsin Historical Society Library in Madison, WI.  It is time for another trip to Ohio and Pennsylvania, etc. via (WHS) Wisconsin next year.

Hint – read about the history of your ancestor’s places, and you may find them!  And photocopy, photograph, scan, or take neater handwritten notes than I did.  There may be some mistakes here, as I had very little time before the library closed, and about 400 pages to skim through.  I was so happy to find it, and love Historic County Histories.  Look here for the WHS catalog to see what else they have.

 

Stateline Travelers – Part 8 – A Stateline Celebration for 100 Year-old South Beloit, Illinois and Me

Stateline Travelers – Part  8  – A Stateline Celebration for 100 Year-old South Beloit, Illinois and Me

Part of an on-going series by

Vicki Ruthe Hahn, Stateline Genealogy Sorter.

June 24, 2017

 

South Beloit, Illinois will be celebrating 100 years this year.

Their Centennial Celebration will be August 24 – 27, 2017.

Sout Beloit 100

Beloit Wisconsin and South Beloit, Illinois have been linked for our entire history.

Next week the Beloit Public Library is opening their new coffee and food shop, “The Blender”.

I am welcoming South Beloiters to Beloit Public Library to visit “their” GEN Club and Coffee shop here in Beloit.

Opening the week of June 26, 2017

https://www.facebook.com/blendercafebeloit/#

Color Logo Grey Text

Blender interiorBlender sign

What a great place to go for a refreshing drink, smoothie, bakery snack, soup, sandwich, breakfast, lunch, or supper –  after doing genealogy at Beloit Public Library, after a Stateline Genealogy Club @ Beloit Public Library program.

12StatelineGenealogyClubLogo-lg(1)

…0r anytime.  I believe that the open hours of The Blender will be something like 7 a.m. – 7 p.m. Monday – Thursday; and 7 a.m. – 3 p.m. Friday and Saturday.

Maybe we can raise a “toast” to great collaborations between Beloit and South Beloit for another 100 years.

I was the Director of the South Beloit Public Library from 1991 – 1993.  Then I got a job as the Head of the Circulation Department at the Beloit Public Library, and I am still here, 24 years later, as the Public Services Librarian.

Catherine Hayes (at that time the former, former South Beloit Public Library Director) was the historian of South Beloit.  All historical knowledge stated here is from the book, “Our Golden History-South Beloit Illinois”, which is a non-copyrighted work by Catherine Hayes.  She wrote the book to inform the people South Beloit of their pre-incorporation roots for the Sesquicentennial.

Catherine and I had many friendly conversations, as she helped me learn how to be a library director, and taught me about the history of South Beloit –

“Always a City, never a Village!”

The South Beloit Centennial Committee is writing a new Centennial history book.

 

 

In 1818, the United States Congress told the people of the Territory of Illinois to form a state government.

A heated debate arose over the correct placement of the northern state line of Illinois.

If the old line of 1787 (Northwest Territory) were kept, Illinois would be much smaller than Wisconsin,

and Chicago would be in Wisconsin because Illinois would have no Lake Michigan shoreline.

A bill passed cutting 8,500sq. miles off of Wisconsin and adding it to Illinois, creating the current state line.

 

By 1838, the village of Turtle became Beloit.

South Beloit became the south part of Beloit.

 

Winnebago County voted in 1842 for annexation to Wisconsin.

However, the south had more people and out-voted the north.

So Winnebago County remained in Illinois.

 

They (south of Beloit) petitioned to become their own city in 1914.

In September 17, 1917, South Beloit became a city.

Hint – these are the newspapers from Rockford Illinois that would also cover South Beloit Illinois:
Winnebago – Rockford   Crusader                  1952 – 1971
Winnebago – Rockford   Morning Star          1961 – 1963
Winnebago – Rockford   Register Star           1988 – 2007
Winnebago – Rockford   Register-Republic  1952 – 1972
The Rockford Public Library should have these on microfilm.
You can contact them for a search if you cannot get there yourself.
We have the Beloit Daily News (in microfilm at Beloit Public Library, Wisconsin)
which also covers news for South Beloit Illinois.
South Beloit does not have their own newspaper that I know of.
We would be glad to look up local history for you, but Beloit Daily News is not indexed for all the years.
We would need to know which date – at least the month and year.
For requests, please send us more information to our Interlibrary loan email.
Or you can contact me at the BLOG email StatelinegenealogyClub@yahoo.com

Happy Anniversaries to Us

Happy Anniversaries to Us

It has been a lot of fun, and I have learned so much from all of you, and from finding/writing  interesting articles to help you.

I always write as “Vicki Ruthe Hahn, SGS Stateline Genealogy Sorter” if the posting is all my own writing.

If it is someone else’s work, I always put a reference to other writer’s work and add:

A special “shout-out” to Judith Nichols, who brought the idea of a genealogy  club to the Library, and helped me lead it for awhile.

Stateline Genealogy Club @ Beloit Public Library is 5 years old.

AND

Blog  “StatelineGenealogyClub.Wordpress.com” is 3 years old.

Vicki Ruthe Hahn is the Blog creator of:

“StatelineGenealogyClub.Wordpress.com”                                                 June 15, 2014 ;

and the founder of:

Stateline Genealogy Club @ Beloit Public Library                                   April 13, 2012

 

As of June 20, 2017, there have been:

There are 12 WordPress followers, 40 email followers (total 52);

27 likes & 92 comments.

One day there were 62 views, the most ever.

These views seem to be in addition to Followers looking at emails.

My BLOG doubled with 2254 views in 2015, & 5164 views in 2016.

Half-way through 2017, there have been 2,396 views.

These were from 37 countries in 2015; & 77 counties in  2016, and

62 countries in 2017 so far.    Some just show 1 view per country, but

many have several views, so I feel that I am helping genealogists

throughout the world.

3 Year Anniversary Achievement

Happy Anniversary with WordPress.com!

You registered on WordPress.com

3 years ago.

Thanks for flying with us.

Keep up the good blogging.

Stateline Travelers – Part 7 – My 3 x Gt-Grandma , and Me. She got teeth & fashion!

Stateline Travelers – Part 7 –

My 3 x Gt-Grandma , and Me.  She got teeth & fashion!

by Vicki Ruthe Hahn, SGS Stateline Genealogy Sorter

Part of an On-going Series

June 11, 2017

Photo composite fun.

Imagine my shock when I realized that these two different looks were the same person – my great great great grandmother, Catherine McIntosh Greenup.

I love looking for the stories as I do family histories, and piecing them together verbally and visually.

In about five years, she completely changed fashions, and became confident (new teeth?) and very urban sophisticated.  She dressed less like the unsophisticated Virginia/Kentucky country look, and more like the “big” city of Macomb, Illinois look.

This is one of the slides that I composed for my genealogy program – “What They Wore When” or “Contemporary Fashion Through the Ages – How to Tell Which Timeline Your Ancestors Are, by What They Wore.”  I have given the program three times, and am booked for two more presentations in the next few months.

 

3 x Gt Grandma photos

 

 

Hint – I never expected to find that I had any ancestors from Kentucky.  Try to learn about all states that your ancestors lived in.

Kentucky was granted statehood in 1792.  it became the fifteenth state in the US and the first state west of the Appalachian mountains.

So it looks like my Gt-Gt-Gt Grandma Greenup was born in Kentucky 17 years before it became a state, and there are zero chances that there will be a state vital record of that.

 

 

Numbering Systems for Genealogy Family Trees

Numbering Systems for Genealogy Family Trees

by Vicki Ruthe Hahn

(SGS) Stateline Genealogy Sorter

May 31, 2017

Numbering systems were used more in the past for keeping track of generations in family trees.  This was the only way to keep generations of families straight on hand-written forms, family pedigree charts, and for recording in books.   Once software tracking became possible, most of the numbering, sorting, and tracking of people became more automated.

People new to genealogy have not had to know how to do any of the various numbering methods.  There are times that using a numbering system might help.

I do not know much about these methods, and had to look a long time to find any information about how to use them.

I do know that on Legacy software, the RIN numbers, automatically assigned to each person, can change.  They are not important for organizing except for the computer to keep track of individuals.

Some of the most popular numbering systems are: Ahnentafel (Sosa-Stradonitz Method), and the Register, NGSQ, Henry, d’Aboville, Meurgey de Tupigny, and de Villiers/Pama Systems.

I have used the Ahnentafel numbering system while filling out pedigree family charts.  It is very handy, and makes an easy tracking system, once you understand it.  I have even gotten to a second page of the 5 or 6 generation family pedigree charts.

Ahnentafel, also known as the Eytzinger Method, Sosa Method, and Sosa-Stradonitz Method is the numbering of ancestors beginning with a descendant. This system allows one to know an ancestor’s number without looking at the list and allows one to know an ancestor’s relationship based on their number.

The number of a person’s father is the double of their own number, and the number of a person’s mother is the double of their own, plus one. For instance, if the number of Sam White is 10, his father is 20, and his mother is 21.

See more about how to do that and other numbering systems:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genealogical_numbering_systems

Genealogy Numbering Systems (National Institute) – https://familysearch.org/wiki/en/Genealogy_Numbering_Systems_(National_Institute)

http://www.saintclair.org/numbers/

 

 

My tribute to all the military horses, mules, and donkeys that “served” or lost their lives in Wars

My tribute to all the military horses, mules, and donkeys that “served” or lost their lives in Wars

by Vicki Ruthe Hahn

(SGS) Stateline Genealogy Sorter

May 31, 2017

Vicki’s note- Photo posted by Horse.com on Facebook.com. I wrote this Posting based on information found at http://www.mulemuseum.org/history-of-the-mule.html, Wikipedia.com, Amazon.com, and Horse.com, and excerpts of commentators’ information.  This is an addition to Memorial Day tributes to all the human war veterans:

army horse tribute

American soldiers paying tribute to all the horses that lost their life in World War I.

The photograph was taken in 1917 at Camp Cody, New Mexico. The men kept fainting from the heat that day, so it took 8 hours to take the picture.  This shows a Cavalry unit – 650 officers and enlisted men of Auxiliary Remount Depot No 326.

The photo taken in 1918 was officers and recruits standing in the shape of the Liberty bell.

Horse, mules, and donkeys were “drafted; they did not volunteer. They acted against their nature by running toward guns shelling fire.  They suffered horribly in the U.S. Civil War, and World Wars.  The Allied forces had millions of horses, and countless mules and donkeys, which died from gunfire, wounds, starvation, thirst, exhaustion, disease, bad weather, miserable conditions, and exposure.

Army Horses

WWII German pack horses – similar conditions for pack mules and all wars.

Hugh Lofting fought in the trenches during World War I.  He created the idea for “The Story of Doctor Dolittle” (published in 1920) when he observed the lack of compassion shown to the horses on the battlefields. While he served, Lofting wrote stories about Dr Dolittle in his letters home to entertain his children.

Pack mules made the U.S. Army (and other countries’ armies) mobile. Mules had tremendous stamina, and carried food, supplies and ammunition to battles, returning with wounded soldiers.

Landscape

WWII U.S. pack mule

Mules were critical in the Civil War. The Union Army had (purchased) about one million mules. The South only had about half as many mules, most of which the soldiers brought from their farms. The Southern farms then did not have mules to do plowing. Some historians suggest that the shortage of mules might have contributed to the South ultimately losing.

Mules were used in World War I and (less in) World War II.  They could go where rough terrains were not usable by motorized vehicles. About 8,000 mules died in those wars. Enemy submarines targeted supply ships carrying mules to destroy supplies and the means of transportation.

Six Mules hauled 2,000-pound wagons that were loaded with 3,000 pounds of cargo (including mule’s feed). In mountainous areas a train of 50 (plus) mules (in single file), carried 250 pounds each, and traveled 60 miles a day.

“War Horse” is a novel by Michael Morpurgo, made into a Broadway play, and a movie. The story, based on true events, is a tribute to all the horses that died in WW I. The horses in the play were puppets operated by three puppeteers.

“Animals in War”, by Jilly Cooper, has many true stories about the devotion and loyalty of horses, mules and donkeys to their military masters during war.

At the ends of the Wars, cavalry soldiers could not bring their horses home and officers ordered them to shoot them.

The army kept its horses and mules into the late 50s.

Did any of your military (cavalry) ancestors have the care of horses, mules, or donkeys?